The time-based job scheduler
cron(8) has been around since Version 7 Unix, and its
crontab(5) syntax is familiar even for people who don’t do much Unix system administration. It’s standardised, reasonably flexible, simple to configure, and works reliably, and so it’s trusted by both system packages and users to manage many important tasks.
However, like many older Unix tools,
cron(8)‘s simplicity has a drawback: it relies upon the user to know some detail of how it works, and to correctly implement any other safety checking behaviour around it. Specifically, all it does is try and run the job at an appropriate time, and email the output. For simple and unimportant per-user jobs, that may be just fine, but for more crucial system tasks it’s worthwhile to wrap a little extra infrastructure around it and the tasks it calls.
There are a few ways to make the way you use
cron(8) more robust if you’re in a situation where keeping track of the running job is desirable.
Apply the principle of least privilege
The sixth column of a system
crontab(5) file is the username of the user as which the task should run:
0 * * * * root cron-task
To the extent that is practical, you should run the task as a user with only the privileges it needs to run, and nothing else. This can sometimes make it worthwhile to create a dedicated system user purely for running scheduled tasks relevant to your application.
0 * * * * myappcron cron-task
This is not just for security reasons, although those are good ones; it helps protect you against nasties like scripting errors attempting to remove entire system directories.
Similarly, for tasks with database systems such as MySQL, don’t use the administrative
root user if you can avoid it; instead, use or even create a dedicated user with a unique random password stored in a locked-down
~/.my.cnf file, with only the needed permissions. For a MySQL backup task, for example, only a few permissions should be required, including
SHOW VIEW, and
In some cases, of course, you really will need to be
root. In particularly sensitive contexts you might even consider using
sudo(8) with appropriate
NOPASSWD options, to allow the dedicated user to run only the appropriate tasks as
root, and nothing else.
Test the tasks
Before placing a task in a
crontab(5) file, you should test it on the command line, as the user configured to run the task and with the appropriate environment set. If you’re going to run the task as
root, use something like
sudo -i to get a root shell with the user’s expected environment first:
$ sudo -i -u cronuser $ cron-task
Once the task works on the command line, place it in the
crontab(5) file with the timing settings modified to run the task a few minutes later, and then watch
tail -f to check that the task actually runs without errors, and that the task itself completes properly:
May 7 13:30:01 yourhost CRON: (you) CMD (cron-task)
This may seem pedantic at first, but it becomes routine very quickly, and it saves a lot of hassles down the line as it’s very easy to make an assumption about something in your environment that doesn’t actually hold in the one that
cron(8) will use. It’s also a necessary acid test to make sure that your
crontab(5) file is well-formed, as some implementations of
cron(8) will refuse to load the entire file if one of the lines is malformed.
If necessary, you can set arbitrary environment variables for the tasks at the top of the file:
MYVAR=myvalue 0 * * * * you cron-task
Don’t throw away errors or useful output
You’ve probably seen tutorials on the web where in order to keep the
crontab(5) job from sending standard output and/or standard error emails every five minutes, shell redirection operators are included at the end of the job specification to discard both the standard output and standard error. This kluge is particularly common for running web development tasks by automating a request to a URL with
*/5 * * * root curl https://example.com/cron.php >/dev/null 2>&1
Ignoring the output completely is generally not a good idea, because unless you have other tasks or monitoring ensuring the job does its work, you won’t notice problems (or know what they are), when the job emits output or errors that you actually care about.
In the case of
curl(1), there are just way too many things that could go wrong, that you might notice far too late:
- The script could get broken and return 500 errors.
- The URL of the
cron.phptask could change, and someone could forget to add a HTTP 301 redirect.
- Even if a HTTP 301 redirect is added, if you don’t use
curl(1), it won’t follow it.
- The client could get blacklisted, firewalled, or otherwise impeded by automatic or manual processes that falsely flag the request as spam.
- If using HTTPS, connectivity could break due to cipher or protocol mismatch.
The author has seen all of the above happen, in some cases very frequently.
As a general policy, it’s worth taking the time to read the manual page of the task you’re calling, and to look for ways to correctly control its output so that it emits only the output you actually want. In the case of
curl(1), for example, I’ve found the following formula works well:
curl -fLsS -o /dev/null http://example.com/
-f: If the HTTP response code is an error, emit an error message rather than the 404 page.
-L: If there’s an HTTP 301 redirect given, try to follow it.
-sS: Don’t show progress meter (
-sfrom also blocking error messages).
-o /dev/null: Send the standard output (the actual page returned) to
This way, the
curl(1) request should stay silent if everything is well, per the old Unix philosophy Rule of Silence.
You may not agree with some of the choices above; you might think it important to e.g. log the complete output of the returned page, or to fail rather than silently accept a 301 redirect, or you might prefer to use
wget(1). The point is that you take the time to understand in more depth what the called program will actually emit under what circumstances, and make it match your requirements as closely as possible, rather than blindly discarding all the output and (worse) the errors. Work with Murphy’s law; assume that anything that can go wrong eventually will.
Send the output somewhere useful
Another common mistake is failing to set a useful
MAILTO at the top of the
crontab(5) file, as the specified destination for any output and errors from the tasks.
cron(8) uses the system mail implementation to send its messages, and typically, default configurations for mail agents will simply send the message to an
mbox file in
/var/mail/$USER, that they may not ever read. This defeats much of the point of mailing output and errors.
This is easily dealt with, though; ensure that you can send a message to an address you actually do check from the server, perhaps using
$ printf '%s\n' 'Test message' | mail -s 'Test subject' email@example.com
Once you’ve verified that your mail agent is correctly configured and that the mail arrives in your inbox, set the address in a
MAILTO variable at the top of your file:
MAILTOfirstname.lastname@example.org 0 * * * * you cron-task-1 */5 * * * * you cron-task-2
If you don’t want to use email for routine output, another method that works is sending the output to
syslog with a tool like
0 * * * * you cron-task | logger -it cron-task
Alternatively, you can configure aliases on your system to forward system mail destined for you on to an address you check. For Postfix, you’d use an
I sometimes use this setup in cases where the task is expected to emit a few lines of output which might be useful for later review, but send
stderr output via
MAILTO as normal. If you’d rather not use
syslog, perhaps because the output is high in volume and/or frequency, you can always set up a log file
/var/log/cron-task.log … but don’t forget to add a
logrotate(8) rule for it!
Put the tasks in their own shell script file
Ideally, the commands in your
crontab(5) definitions should only be a few words, in one or two commands. If the command is running off the screen, it’s likely too long to be in the
crontab(5) file, and you should instead put it into its own script. This is a particularly good idea if you want to reliably use features of
bash or some other shell besides POSIX/Bourne
/bin/sh for your commands, or even a scripting language like Awk or Perl; by default,
cron(8) uses the system’s
/bin/sh implementation for parsing the commands.
crontab(5) files don’t allow multi-line commands, and have other gotchas like the need to escape percent signs
% with backslashes, keeping as much configuration out of the actual
crontab(5) file as you can is generally a good idea.
If you’re running
cron(8) tasks as a non-system user, and can’t add scripts into a system bindir like
/usr/local/bin, a tidy method is to start your own, and include a reference to it as part of your
PATH. I favour
~/.local/bin, and have seen references to
~/bin as well. Save the script in
~/.local/bin/cron-task, make it executable with
chmod +x, and include the directory in the
PATH environment definition at the top of the file:
PATH=/home/you/.local/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin MAILTOemail@example.com 0 * * * * you cron-task
Having your own directory with custom scripts for your own purposes has a host of other benefits, but that’s another article…
If your implementation of
cron(8) supports it, rather than having an
/etc/crontab file a mile long, you can put tasks into separate files in
$ ls /etc/cron.d system-a system-b raid-maint
This approach allows you to group the configuration files meaningfully, so that you and other administrators can find the appropriate tasks more easily; it also allows you to make some files editable by some users and not others, and reduces the chance of edit conflicts. Using
sudoedit(8) helps here too. Another advantage is that it works better with version control; if I start collecting more than a few of these task files or to update them more often than every few months, I start a Git repository to track them:
$ cd /etc/cron.d $ sudo git init $ sudo git add --all $ sudo git commit -m "First commit"
If you’re editing a
crontab(5) file for tasks related only to the individual user, use the
crontab(1) tool; you can edit your own
crontab(5) by typing
crontab -e, which will open your
$EDITOR to edit a temporary file that will be installed on exit. This will save the files into a dedicated directory, which on my system is
On the systems maintained by the author, it’s quite normal for
/etc/crontab never to change from its packaged template.
Include a timeout
cron(8) will normally allow a task to run indefinitely, so if this is not desirable, you should consider either using options of the program you’re calling to implement a timeout, or including one in the script. If there’s no option for the command itself, the
timeout(1) command wrapper in
coreutils is one possible way of implementing this:
0 * * * * you timeout 10s cron-task
Greg’s wiki has some further suggestions on ways to implement timeouts.
Include file locking to prevent overruns
cron(8) will start a new process regardless of whether its previous runs have completed, so if you wish to avoid locking for long-running task, on GNU/Linux you could use the
flock(1) wrapper for the
flock(2) system call to set an exclusive lockfile, in order to prevent the task from running more than one instance in parallel.
0 * * * * you flock -nx /var/lock/cron-task cron-task
Greg’s wiki has some more in-depth discussion of the file locking problem for scripts in a general sense, including important information about the caveats of “rolling your own” when
flock(1) is not available.
If it’s important that your tasks run in a certain order, consider whether it’s necessary to have them in separate tasks at all; it may be easier to guarantee they’re run sequentially by collecting them in a single shell script.
Do something useful with exit statuses
cron(8) task or commands within its script exit non-zero, it can be useful to run commands that handle the failure appropriately, including cleanup of appropriate resources, and sending information to monitoring tools about the current status of the job. If you’re using Nagios Core or one of its derivatives, you could consider using
send_nsca to send passive checks reporting the status of jobs to your monitoring server. I’ve written a simple script called
nscaw to do this for me:
0 * * * * you nscaw CRON_TASK -- cron-task
Consider alternatives to
If your machine isn’t always on and your task doesn’t need to run at a specific time, but rather needs to run once daily or weekly, you can install
anacron and drop scripts into the
cron.weekly directories in
/etc, as appropriate. Note that on Debian and Ubuntu GNU/Linux systems, the default
/etc/crontab contains hooks that run these, but they run only if
anacron(8) is not installed.
If you’re using
cron(8) to poll a directory for changes and run a script if there are such changes, on GNU/Linux you could consider using a daemon based on
Finally, if you require more advanced control over when and how your task runs than
cron(8) can provide, you could perhaps consider writing a daemon to run on the server consistently and fork processes for its task. This would allow running a task more often than once a minute, as an example. Don’t get too bogged down into thinking that
cron(8) is your only option for any kind of asynchronous task management!